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An Off-Grid Utility Management System
In the last decade, advances in technology have fueled a revolution in eco-friendly energy. From solar panels to woodchip boilers, people are bringing this technology into their homes in an effort to be caring for the environment, as well as their wallets.
Despite this shift in attitudes towards eco-conscious homes, the upfront costs of purchasing such technology is often substantial. As a result, eco-friendly home technology has been viewed as a luxury which is unaffordable for most individuals and families.
The Biogas Plant
The design is based on a process known as Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket, which is suitable for most waste containing a high percentage of suspended solids. The segregated organic food waste is brought to the plant and then crushed with water to form a pump able slurry which is mixed and then pumped to the anaerobic digester, where the organic food waste is converted into biogas, bio manure, and treated slurry and is periodically removed from the digester and is used as organic manure. The biogas generated from the anaerobic digester is collected in a membrane balloon and suitably pressurized. The pressurized biogas is then used for cooking applications or sent to the generator to act as a supplementary battery charger leading to zero garbage disposal. The Water Treatment Plant This plant uses a biochemical oxidation process via an attached growth aerobic biological system. Organic matter in the water comes into intimate contact with a very large area of a rotating bio-film residing on synthetic media that has a large specific surface, supports a very high microbial population. Aeration is achieved by rapid surface renewal of thin films of water. The membrane pack is automatically back-flushed with air and water pulses for 30 seconds every half an hour thereby keeping it clean. At the end of the process, a reverse osmosis plant completes the tertiary purification process.
The Photovoltaic and Battery Plant
For this off-grid project, the Photovoltaic plant which is made of multi-crystalline solar modules becomes the primary power source and forms the grid, converting solar power and battery reserves to AC power for loads. Powerful load-starting capabilities of the system start and run typical loads, such as pumps with ease, enabling key water and sewage systems. Using the electronic charge controller, the PhotoVoltaic system is DC coupled to the battery bank, providing an efficient and economical method of storing PhotoVoltaic power for use overnight. The solar array is designed to supply the load to the apartment as also keep a 20-hour tubular deep discharge battery fully charged.
The Sewage Treatment Plant
Wastewater and fecal matter is collected in a collection tank and is passed through screening units in the basket chamber to prevent non-biodegradable materials like grit, plastics, metal, and glass from entering the system. The screened water then flows to an equalization tank and further pumped into the aeration tank for biodegradation after overflow, it goes to a tank for settling the suspended solids. From the settling tank, the clear supernatant overflows to the water sump and that clarified water is pumped through the pressure sand filter and then through an activated carbon filter which efficiently remove any residual suspended solids, odor, and color. Disinfection is done online at various points before the water is sent for tertiary treatment.